Friday, March 20, 2020

A Brief History of Manchuria

A Brief History of Manchuria Manchuria is the region of northeastern China that now covers the provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning. Some geographers also include northeastern Inner Mongolia, as well. Manchuria has a long history of conquering and being conquered by its southwestern neighbor, China. Naming Controversy The name Manchuria is controversial. It comes from a European adoption of the Japanese name Manshu, which the Japanese began to use in the nineteenth century. Imperial Japan wanted to pry that area free from Chinese influence. Eventually, in the early 20th century, Japan would annex the region outright.   The so-called Manchu people themselves, as well as the Chinese, did not use this term, and it is considered problematic, given its connections with Japanese imperialism. Chinese sources generally call it the Northeast or the Three Northeast Provinces. Historically, it is also known as Guandong, meaning east of the pass. Nonetheless, Manchuria is still considered to be the standard name for northeastern China in the English language.   The Manchu People Manchuria is the traditional land of the Manchu  (formerly called the Jurchen), the Xianbei (Mongols), and the  Khitan  peoples. It also has long-standing populations of Korean and Hui Muslim people.  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹In total, the Chinese central government recognizes 50 ethnic minority groups in Manchuria.  Today, it is home to more than 107 million people; however, the vast majority of them are ethnic Han Chinese. During the late Qing Dynasty (19th and early 20th centuries), the ethnic-Manchu Qing emperors encouraged their Han Chinese subjects to settle the area that was the Manchu homeland. They took this surprising step to counter Russian expansionism in the region. The mass migration of Han Chinese is called the  Chuang Guandong, or the venture into the east of the pass. Manchuria's History The first empire to unite nearly all of Manchuria was the Liao Dynasty (907 - 1125 CE). The Great Liao is also known as the Khitan Empire, which took advantage of the collapse of Tang China to spread its territory into China proper, as well. The Manchuria-based Khitan Empire was powerful enough to demand and receive tribute from Song China and also from the Goryeo Kingdom in Korea. Another Liao tributary people, the Jurchen, overthrew the Liao Dynasty in 1125 and formed the Jin Dynasty. The Jin would go on to rule much of northern China and Mongolia from 1115 to 1234 CE. They were conquered by the rising Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan. After the Mongols Yuan Dynasty in China fell in 1368, a new ethnic Han Chinese dynasty arose called the Ming. The Ming were able to assert control over Manchuria and forced the Jurchens and other local people to pay tribute to them. However, when unrest broke out in the late Ming era, the emperors invited Jurchen/Manchu mercenaries to fight in the civil war.  Instead of defending the Ming, the Manchus conquered all of China in 1644. Their new empire, ruled by the Qing Dynasty, would be the last Imperial Chinese Dynasty  and lasted until 1911. After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, Manchuria was conquered by the Japanese, who renamed it Manchukuo. It was a puppet empire, headed by the former Last Emperor of China, Puyi. Japan launched its invasion of China proper from Manchukuo; it would hold on to Manchuria until the end of World War II. When the Chinese Civil War ended in a victory for the communists in 1949, the new Peoples Republic of China took control of Manchuria. It has remained a part of China ever since.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Radiocarbon Dating - Reliable but Misunderstood

Radiocarbon Dating - Reliable but Misunderstood Radiocarbon dating is one of the best known archaeological dating techniques available to scientists, and the many people in the general public have at least heard of it. But there are many misconceptions about how radiocarbon works and how reliable a technique it is. Radiocarbon dating was invented in the 1950s by the American chemist Willard F. Libby and a few of his students at the University of Chicago: in 1960, he won a Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the invention. It was the first absolute scientific method ever invented: that is to say, the technique was the first to allow a researcher to determine how long ago an organic object died, whether it is in context or not. Shy of a date stamp on an object, it is still the best and most accurate of dating techniques devised. How Does Radiocarbon Work? All living things exchange the gas Carbon 14 (C14) with the atmosphere around them- animals and plants exchange Carbon 14 with the atmosphere, fish and corals exchange carbon with dissolved C14 in the water. Throughout the life of an animal or plant, the amount of C14 is perfectly balanced with that of its surroundings. When an organism dies, that equilibrium is broken. The C14 in a dead organism slowly decays at a known rate: its half life. The half-life of an isotope like C14 is the time it takes for half of it to decay away: in C14, every 5,730 years, half of it is gone. So, if you measure the amount of C14 in a dead organism, you can figure out how long ago it stopped exchanging carbon with its atmosphere. Given relatively pristine circumstances, a radiocarbon lab can measure the amount of radiocarbon accurately in a dead organism for as long as 50,000 years ago; after that, theres not enough C14 left to measure. Tree Rings and Radiocarbon There is a problem, however. Carbon in the atmosphere fluctuates with the strength of earths magnetic field and solar activity. You have to know what the atmospheric carbon level (the radiocarbon reservoir) was like at the time of an organisms death, in order to be able to calculate how much time has passed since the organism died. What you need is a ruler, a reliable map to the reservoir: in other words, an organic set of objects that you can securely pin a date on, measure its C14 content and thus establish the baseline reservoir in a given year. Fortunately, we do have an organic object that tracks carbon in the atmosphere on a yearly basis: tree rings. Trees maintain carbon 14 equilibrium in their growth rings- and trees produce a ring for every year they are alive. Although we dont have any 50,000-year-old trees, we do have overlapping tree ring sets back to 12,594 years. So, in other words, we have a pretty solid way to calibrate raw radiocarbon dates for the most recent 12,594 years of our planets past. But before that, only fragmentary data is available, making it very difficult to definitively date anything older than 13,000 years. Reliable estimates are possible, but with large /- factors. The Search for Calibrations As you might imagine, scientists have been attempting to discover other organic objects that can be dated securely steadily since Libbys discovery. Other organic data sets examined have included varves (layers in sedimentary rock which were laid down annually and contain organic materials, deep ocean corals, speleothems (cave deposits), and volcanic tephras; but there are problems with each of these methods. Cave deposits and varves have the potential to include old soil carbon, and there are as-yet unresolved issues with fluctuating amounts of C14 in ocean corals. Beginning in the 1990s, a coalition of researchers led by Paula J. Reimer of the CHRONO Centre for Climate, the Environment and Chronology, at Queens University Belfast, began building an extensive dataset and calibration tool that they first called CALIB. Since that time, CALIB, now renamed IntCal, has been refined several timesas of this writing (January 2017), the program is now called IntCal13. IntCal combines and reinforces data from tree-rings, ice-cores, tephra, corals, and speleothems to come up with a significantly improved calibration set for c14 dates between 12,000 and 50,000 years ago. The latest curves were ratified at the 21st International Radiocarbon Conference in July of 2012. Lake Suigetsu, Japan Within the last few years, a new potential source for further refining radiocarbon curves is Lake Suigetsu in Japan. Lake Suigetsus annually formed sediments hold detailed information about environmental changes over the past 50,000 years, which radiocarbon specialist PJ Reimer believes will be as good as, and perhaps better than, samples cores from the Greenland Ice Sheet. Researchers Bronk-Ramsay et al. report 808 AMS dates based on sediment varves measured by three different radiocarbon laboratories. The dates and corresponding environmental changes promise to make direct correlations between other key climate records, allowing researchers such as Reimer to finely calibrate radiocarbon dates between 12,500 to the practical limit of c14 dating of 52,800. Constants and Limits Reimer and colleagues point out that IntCal13 is just the latest in calibration sets, and further refinements are to be expected. For example, in IntCal09s calibration, they discovered evidence that during the Younger Dryas (12,550-12,900 cal BP), there was a shutdown or at least a steep reduction of the North Atlantic Deep Water formation, which was surely a reflection of climate change; they had to throw out data for that period from the North Atlantic and use a different dataset. We should see some interesting results in the very near future. Sources and Further Information Bronk Ramsey C, Staff RA, Bryant CL, Brock F, Kitagawa H, Van der Plicht J, Schlolaut G, Marshall MH, Brauer A, Lamb HF et al. 2012. A complete terrestrial radiocarbon record for 11.2 to 52.8 kyr B.P. Science 338:370-374.Reimer PJ. 2012. Atmospheric science. Refining the radiocarbon time scale. Science 338(6105):337-338.Reimer PJ, Bard E, Bayliss A, Beck JW, Blackwell PG, Bronk Ramsey C, Buck CE, Cheng H, Edwards RL, Friedrich M et al. . 2013. IntCal13 and Marine13 Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves 0–50,000 Years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55(4):1869–1887.Reimer P, Baillie M, Bard E, Bayliss A, Beck J, Blackwell PG, Bronk Ramsey C, Buck C, Burr G, Edwards R et al. 2009. IntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon age calibration curves, 0-50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 51(4):1111-1150.Stuiver M, and Reimer PJ. 1993. Extended C14 data base and revised Calib 3.0 c14 age calibration program. Radiocarbon 35(1):215-230.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Two topics for two different papers, Broken Windows & Prison Essay

Two topics for two different papers, Broken Windows & Prison - Essay Example But however factual reports and research show that the broken window theory could definitely have an impact in crime reduction and it can be taken as a foundation for other crime reduction strategies. The other article by Wilson and Kelling brings to light the role of foot patrolling officers in helping public regain confidence on law and order. A disorderly place, not necessarily a place where crime occurs per se, becomes an area of fear especially for people living in and around the place. Foot patrolling officers in the earlier days helped remove this fear among the public through order-maintenance. However, in the following years police have been burdened with the additional role of law-enforcement, as a result of which they are forced to abide by certain rules. This has not helped them in achieving their primary duty of order maintenance. According to the authors, one effective alternative to this developing situation could be citizen patrolling. Good examples of which include c ommunity watchmen and setting up of vigilante groups. Despite the efforts by the general public, the patrolling effect of a policeman can be hard to achieve. Thus the article stresses that men in duty should be encouraged to do their extra bit in order to achieve communal harmony. The article ‘The Prison- Industrial Complex’ by Eric Schlosser throws light about the prison system in the United States. The US now has the distinction of holding more citizens in prison than any other country in the world. And a majority of the prison inmates is constituted by non-violent offenders. This has lead to the prison being viewed as an industrial complex, with more prisons being built to house more people. These prisons home a wide variety of criminals, law offenders, even those who are mentally ill, and with respect to their race about half the inmates in the US prisons are African-Americans, and the number of women inmates have

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Direct Vs. Indirect Taxation Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Direct Vs. Indirect Taxation - Research Paper Example In order to assess our argument it would be important for us to know the difference between direct and indirect taxation.   Direct taxes are those taxes that are levied on one’s income. They are calculated annually and a certain percentage is levied on the earnings of a person. Similarly, indirect taxes or not levied on the people’s income. Instead, indirect taxes are paid on the purchase of goods and services. They are paid whenever a purchase is made. They are included in the selling price of a good and service and hence a person cannot escape indirect taxes since he is paying not only the price of the good or service, but also the portion of a tax. Hence it is unavoidable and is paid by everyone irrespective of his earning. (McConnell)We can use the above definitions to classify the federal income tax and federal sales tax into one of the two classes of taxation. This would help us in determining which is more useful in terms of revenue for the government and welfa re of the society. Since we know that federal income tax is levied on people’s income and is calculated annually, we can classify it as a direct tax. This means that it is levied on the person’s income. It is a progressive tax where the rich person pays a higher amount than a person who is earning lesser than that person. On the other hand, federal sales tax is levied on the purchase of goods and services. People pay this type of tax only when they buy or sell something. It is not charged on the person’s income and it is a regressive tax meaning.... Hence it is unavoidable and is paid by everyone irrespective of his earning. (McConnell) We can use the above definitions to classify the federal income tax and federal sales tax into one of the two classes of taxation. This would help us in determining which is more useful in terms of revenue for the government and welfare of the society. Since we know that federal income tax is levied on people’s income and is calculated annually, we can classify it as a direct tax. This means that it is levied on the person’s income. It is a progressive tax where the rich person pays a higher amount than a person who is earning lesser than that person. On the other hand, federal sales tax is levied on the purchase of goods and services. People pay this type of tax only when they buy or sell something. It is not charged on the person’s income and it is a regressive tax meaning that both rich and poor pay equal amount of tax if the selling price of a good is same for their purch ases. In other words, we can differentiate between these two types of taxes by using mathematic equation. Income tax is charged on one’s income. It is a percentage of one’s income. Let’s suppose that the prevalent income tax rate in the United States of America is 20%. The calculation of taxes for the income will be the following: Income Tax = Annual Income * 0.25 Similarly, in case of an indirect tax such as federal sales tax, the calculation for the income tax will be the following: Tax = Selling Price of Commodity * Percentage of the Tax These two equations tell us that federal sales tax has nothing to do with the income of a person. It is calculated just by looking at the value of the purchase that the person is

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Cassandra System in Facebook

Cassandra System in Facebook Cassandra was designed to accomplish scalability and availability for the Inbox Storage problem. It was a system developed for Facebook. It would need to handle more than a billion write operations. It would also need to scale with the number of users. The data centers which serve the users are distributed across earths geography. Figure 1 Cassandra Symbol In order to keep the search latencies down, it would be necessary for the users to replicate the data over the data centers. Facebook has installed Cassandra as its back end storage system. This is done for multiple services available at Facebook. Distributed file systems have hierarchal name spaces. The existing systems allow operations which are disconnected. They are also strong against general issues like outages and network partitions. Conflicts resolution is different in different systems in Coda and Ficus there is level conflict resolution. Application level resolution is allowed by Bayou. Traditional relational databases seek at providing guarantee of consistent replicated data. Amazon uses the Dynamo storage system for storing and retrieving user details. It uses the Gossip member protocol to maintain node data. Vector clock scheme is used to detect conflict. It has more preference for client side conflict resolution mechanism. In systems which need to handle a high write through put, Dynamo can be disadvantages as read would be needed to manage the vector stamps. Casandra is a non-relational database. It has a distributed multi-dimensional map. This map is indexed by a key. The value which the key points to is highly structured. The size of the row key is a string which has no restrictions. It has size corresponding to 16 to 36 bytes. Like the Big table system, the columns are grouped together into sets. These sets are called as column families. The column families are divided into two type: 1) Simple column families These are the normal column families 2) Super column families The super family has a column family inside a column family. Sorted order of the column can be specified. The inbox display usually displays the messages in time sorted fashion. This can be used by Cassandra as it allows the sorting over the columns by time or by name. The results are displayed in easily for the inbox searches in a time sorted manner. The syntax used to access column family is column_family:column. For a super column family it is column_family: super_column: column. Cassandra cluster is used a part of an application. They are then managed as a part of a service. All the deployments have jsut one table in their schema. But it does support the notion of multiple tables. The API of Cassandra has the below three basic commands: insert (table, key, rowMutation) get (table, key, columnName) delete (table, key, columnName) column name stands for a super column family or simple column family, a specific column in the column family. Consider the architecture of storage system involves plenty of complicated scenarios. Many factors need to be handled such as configuration management, robustness, scalability, For this document we consider primary features of Cassandra that includes membership, partitioning, failure handling, scalability, replication For the various read write requests, the module works in synchrony. In order to confirm the completion of writes, the system routes requests to replica. Reads are handled differently. System reroutes the requests to the nearest replica / route and awaits a quorum of responses. Partitioning Ability to increase scaling is a critical feature provided by Cassandra. This is provided in dynamic way. In the cluster, the partition takes place over the storage hosts. Consistent hashing and also preserving has functions are performed to take care of partitioning. Consider the consistent hashing approach. Here the largest hash value covers the smallest hash value. All nodes are then provided another adhoc value represented by the position of ring. Application provides the key with Cassandra leverages that to move requests. Responsibility is established at a node level around the ring region. Main benefit of this approach is that transition of node impacts only the neighboring node, whereas other nodes are not impacted. There does exist some difficulties for this approach. There is lack of uniform data and load distributions due to the adhoc positions of nodes around the ring. The approach ignores the differences in performances of nodes. Replication In order to increase the durability and availability, Cassandra provides replication. For this purpose, all data item is copied over at N hosts. Each node is conscious aware of other nodes in network, thus high durability is established. Each row is replicated across various data centers that are further synced with very high speed network links. Bootstrapping A configuration is maintained for a node joining the cluster. Configuration file provides the necessary contact points to join the cluster. These are known as seeds. A service can also provide such configuration. Zookeeper is one of them. Scaling the Cluster Consider the case of adding a new node to system. For this purpose, a token is assigned to it. Goal is to reduce load on heavily loaded node. New node is split on a range wherein previous node was assigned for. Web dashboards are provided that can perform above tasks. These can also be achieved through command line utility. Local Persistence Local file system helps provide the necessary local persistence for Cassandra. For recovering data efficiently, disks are used to represent data. There are standard write operations. These include ability to commit and update into a data structure. After successful commit log, then write to in-memory data structure is performed. Implementation Details The Cassandra process on a single machine is primarily consists The process involves clustering, fault identification and storage modules. These apply for a specific machine. There exists event driven items. These split the message across the process pipeline and also task pipeline. These are performed across various steps as part of architecture. JAVA is primary source and all modules are built from scratch using Java. For the clustering and fault detection module, input output that is of type non-blocking is built upon. There are few lessons that were learnt over maintaining Cassandra. New features should be added after understanding its implications over the system. Few scenarios are stated below: 7TB of the data needed to be indexed for 00M users. It was extracted, transformed an loaded into the Cassandra database using Map reduce jobs. The Cassandra instance juts becomes a load over the network bandwidth as some of the data was sent over serialized data over the Cassandra network. Application requirement is to have an atomic operation per key per replica. Storage system features, architecture and implementation is described including partitioning, replication, bootstrapping, scaling, persistence and durability. These are explained through Cassandras perspective which provides those benefits. [1] Avinash Lakshman, Facebook Prashant Malik, Facebook, Cassandra A Decentralized Structured Storage System

Friday, January 17, 2020

Chinese Literature Essay

The first short story under consideration is â€Å"Iron Child† by Mo Yan. The piece of literature deals with industrialization of China, which aimed at establishing the socialist model of political system of this country in the beginning of the second half of the twentieth century. The outcomes of the political transformation of China, particularly, child labor, are described in the story. The story â€Å"Iron Child† is narrated by a five-year-old boy (Yan n.pag.). Another short story under analysis is â€Å"Dogshit Food† by Liu Heng. The events of this story take place in the period of the so-called Great Leap Forward (1958). â€Å"Dogshit Food† deals predominantly with the issues of social life in China and political transformation after the World War II. The author emphasizes the human perception of beauty and ethical aspect of interpersonal relations. The story is being delivered in the third person singular, which indicates author’s narrative. The protagonist of the novel is Yang Tiankuan (Heng n.pag.). In spite of thematic diversity and differences in the formal realization of subject matter in both short-stories, â€Å"Dogshit Food† by Liu Heng and â€Å"Iron Child† by Mo Yan, they have a wide range of similarities. In his short story â€Å"Iron Child†, Mo Yan deals with the issues of industrialization of China establishing the socialist model of political system. The writer also reflects upon the most acute and burning social issues, particularly, child labor. It should be mentioned that Mo Yan creates the reality in which children appeared to be the most vulnerable in  the face of decisions and choices of adults. The general tone of the novel is gloomy. The pace of revolving the plot is predominantly moderate, gravitating towards acceleration. The surrealist vision gives this short story the flavor of reminiscence, since the author, apparently, is recalling and reconsidering his childhood. The aspect of the surrealist vision is embodied in the Iron Child who is the protagonist’s friend. Iron Child is endowed with extraordinary abilities of consuming iron (Yan n.pag.). On the other hand, â€Å"Dogshit Food† by Liu Heng, above all, accentuates the inter-personal relations between Yang Tiankuan and his wife and Yang Tiankuan and the rest of community inhabiting the Flood Water Valley. According to the short story, the negative effect of reformatting the agriculture and economy of China is related to the issue of malnutrition. Apparently, the author is drawing a parallel between the affliction and the person’s character. The conflict between the appearance, the outer surface, and person’s inner world is revealed through the lens of Yang Tiankuan’s wife. Namely, the author analyzes the way she treats Yang Tiankuan and others and, consequently, the way she perceives the world (Heng n.pag.). Therefore, the issues dealt in both novels are social life in China in the age of the Great Leap Forward, childhood and the status of children in Chinese society, interpersonal relations, human perception, and understanding the beauty. The essence of social issues and their outcomes and, as a result, the cause-effect relations dealt with in both short stories constitute the commonness between these particular pieces of literature. Another important observation to be made concerns the aspect of distinctiveness and autonomy of Chinese literature in general and Chinese prose of the twentieth century in particular. The phenomenon of distinctiveness and autonomy of Chinese literature was predetermined by the geographical position of China as well as scientific, cultural, and political separateness of this region from the rest of the world. Coalescence, i.e. loss of individuality, of the Chinese historic-cultural frontier in Asia represented itself as a notable fact common to the second half of the twentieth century. Mo Yan and Liu Heng’s positions supported Chinese identity in the context of culture by all means. Considering the current situation, it is important to admit the process of introducing the realities of the Western world to East and China in particular. They were assimilated into Eastern ground. Mo Yan and Liu Heng’s short stories were called, above all, to communicate the idea of cultural identity to the audience across the world. In other words, these particular pieces of literature have no target audience. In its turn, the absence of target audiences indicates both self-sufficiency and self-sustainment of art in general and literature in particular. Self-sufficiency and self-sustainment are the markers of the postmodern art, philosophy and the concept of world. However, social determination of both pieces of art is obvious as far as their subject matter is concerned. In my considered opinion, the issues of identity, assimilation and social determination presented in both â€Å"Dogshit Food† by Liu Heng and Mo Yan’s â€Å"Iron Child† are important in terms of investigating and analyzing. Works Cited Heng, Liu. â€Å"Dogshit Food.† _Fiction Since 1976._ Trans. Deride Sabina Knight. N.p., n.d. 366 – 378. Print. Yan, Mo. â€Å"Iron Child.† _Fiction Since 1976._ Trans. Howad Goldblatt. N.p., n.d. 367 – 387. Print.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

The Battle Of The Bulge - 3845 Words

Battle of the Bulge The Battle of the Bulge started in the winter December 16th 1944 – 1945 towards the end of World War II. It was the last major Nazi attack against the Allies in World War II. The Battle of the Bulge was the last chance effort by Hitler to split the alliance between Britain, France and America in two. Adolf Hitler believed that the western sector of Europe was weak in addition, if he attacked with a successful defeat, it would break up the alliance. Hitler ordered a major attack on mostly the American forces. Hitler’s goal was to destroy all Allied armies to force the Western Allies to negotiate a peace treaty in his favor. That attack was officially known as the Battle of the Ardennes by the U.S Army. When the Germans first attacked it created a bulge in the Americans Allied front line, which is now known as the Battle of the Bulge. By the end of January 1945, America units had recovered all the ground they lost. Hitler’s plan was to attack with such a great force using three armies against the United States Allies, which in his head would destroy the pipeline in which the majority of supplies were reaching our Allies. The German final plan was to attack and capture Antwerp, which would divide the British and American armies that would deprive the much needed pipeline which the Allies used for supplies. Choosing this plan of action, Hitler used Walter Model and Gerd von Rundstedt to execute this plan. To move forward with thisShow MoreRelatedThe Battle of the Bulge757 Words   |  3 Pages to eliminate the bulge in the American line. This success was largely due to General Patton’s third army, that attacked from the North and the South. On January 8, 1945, the German forces began to pull out of the Bulge. As the Americans advanced, they continued to erase all German gains. By the end of January, 1945, all territory that was captured by the Germans was back under Allied control (â€Å"Battle of the Bulge†). The Battle of the bulge was one of the most difficult battles of the war for theRead MoreThe Battle Of The Bulge1089 Words   |  5 PagesBattle of the Bulge The United States remains a country with a rich history in several issues including strong military activities including their incursion in Iraq, Afghanistan and other volatile countries around the world. However, the devastations of the Battle of the Bulge make it as one of the deadliest and bloodiest wars that the U.S has ever witnessed in history. It led to various war tactics with artillery emerging from it and other military operation challenges. Despite its unpredictableRead MoreThe Battle Of The Bulge1098 Words   |  5 PagesThe Battle of the Bulge was one of the Bloodiest battles of World War II with around 175,000 total casualties and played a key role in ending the War. The Battle started as a German surprise attack on Allied Forces along an 80-mile front in the Ardennes Forest of southern Belgium. The Germans initially had a great deal of success in their attack but through a series of Allied counter attacks the Allied Forces were able to cripple the German Forces. The Field Artillery played a crucial role inRead MoreThe Battle Of The Bulge2131 Words   |  9 PagesThe Battle of the Bulge was the largest battle on the Western Front of World War Two. At the largest point of the battle it involved over 1.1 million men. The battle was started when the Germans launched Operation Watch on the Rhine. The main objective of this operation was to capture the American held harbor of Antwerp which is Belgium. Ever since the invasion of Normandy the allies had had problems bringing supplies up to the front. Every time the Germans left a city with a harbor in it they sabotagedRead MoreThe Battle Of The Bulge1712 Words   |  7 Pages Battle of the Bulge Christopher Adams NCOA SLC 15-005 Battle of the Bulge Introduction The Battle of the Bulge, a massive German counteroffensive which began in December 1944, ultimately produced the largest casualty rate in any one battle throughout World War II. The Allied Forces alone lost almost 80,000 at the Battle of the Bulge. This casualty rate could have been much higher if Hitler would’ve grasped the importance and value of supply and logisticalRead MoreThe Battle Of The Bulge1077 Words   |  5 PagesBattle of the Bulge The Battle of the Bulge is remembered as Adolf Hitler’s final effort to escape total defeat during World War II (WWII). His initial efforts were successful, however the Allied force commanders proved superior through there demonstrated adaptive and decisive decision making. These actions helped to overcome the military force and military intelligence failures during the battle. If these failures had been avoided, the Germans would have been defeated much quickerRead MoreBattle of the Bulge1611 Words   |  7 PagesThe battle of the bulge The battle of the bulge was Hitlers last chance to win the war or at least make the allies go for a treaty. He did this because his forces were being pushed back into Germany and soon they would run out of supplies and other resources for war. Hitler thought of this bold plain when he recalled how a German hero Frederick the great was facing defeat, Frederick went on a offensive attack at his foe who had superior numbers but the bold moved worked and Hitler thought heRead MoreThe Battle Of The Bulge1630 Words   |  7 PagesImagine hundreds of thousands of soldiers fighting in blizzard conditions, both sides fighting for their country, The Battle of the Bulge was one of the largest battles of the war and proved to be one of the most important. Some people ask how the Allied forces were able to stop the seemingly unbeatable Nazi war machine, this battle would be the last major offensive by the Third Reich in attempt to change the tides of the Second World War. The Allied forces were about to be a part of the true terrorsRead MoreThe Battle Of The Bulge1647 Words   |  7 PagesThe Battle of the Bulge stands as the largest battle fought between the Allied and Axis forces on the Western Front during World War II. This battle was a German offensive intended to drive a wedge between the American and British armies in France and the Low Countries and capture the port of Antwerp in the Netherlands to deny the Allies use of the port facilities. The battle also known as the Ardennes Offensive, took place in the Ardennes Forest of Luxembourg and Belgium. The battle waged duringRead MoreThe Battle Of The Bulge1388 Words   |  6 PagesWhen Eisenhower summons 10th Armored Division to Bastogne, Patton exercises disciplined initiative in setting the stage for victory at the Battle of the Bulge. Before Patton is summoned to Verdun, he set the conditions for his forces to break away from the battle in the Saar River Valley and move toward Bastogne. Patton initially protests the order to send the 10th Armored Division to Bastogne. Losing an entire division would weaken his effort to Invade Germany in the Saar. However, Patton finally